北京pk10赛车网:为什么我们会打哈欠?打哈欠又为什么会传染?
作者:管理员    发布于:2018-08-11 23:20:26    文字:【】【】【
你或许会留意到,聚会的一群人中只需有一团体打了哈欠,其他的人也会接二连三地开端打哈欠,甚至你家的宠物狗狗也会被你的哈欠传染。人为何会打哈欠,打哈欠又为何会传染呢?

You know the feeling. It’s impossible to resist. You just need to yawn.
你晓得这种觉得。pk10赛车直播注册那种激动很难顺从,你就是想打个哈欠。
A yawn consists of an extended gaping of the mouth followed by a more rapid closure.
打哈欠时,人们张大嘴巴,之后以更快的速度闭上嘴。
In mammals and birds, a long intake of breath and shorter exhale follows the gaping of the mouth, but in other species such as fish, amphibians and snakes there is no intake of breath.
哺乳植物和鸟类张嘴打哈欠会吸入一大口吻,之后长久呼气。北京pk10赛车网但其他植物打哈欠时并不吸气,比方鱼类、两栖植物和蛇。
But why does it occur?
但哈欠是怎样来的呢?
In the past, people have had many hypotheses. As far back as 400 BC, Hippocrates thought yawning removed bad air from the lungs before a fever.
在过来,人们有很多假想。在公元前400年,pk10赛车开奖结果古希腊名医希波克拉底以为,发烧之前,哈欠会把废气从肺部排出。
In the 17th and 18th century, doctors believed yawning increased oxygen in the blood, blood pressure, heart rate and blood flow itself.
在17和18世纪,医生们以为哈欠可以添加血液中的氧气、使血压和心率上升、促进血流。
More recently, consensus moved toward the idea that yawning cools down the brain, so when ambient conditions and temperature of the brain itself increase, yawning episodes increase.
近年来,更多人以为哈欠会让大脑冷静,所以当外界条件趋于紧张,大脑温度添加时,打哈欠的频率也会添加。
Despite all these theories, the truth is that scientists do not know the true biological function of a yawn.
虽说有这麼多的实际,但真相是,北京pk10赛车登陆网址迷信家并不晓得哈欠真实的生物功用。
What we do know is that yawning occurs in just about every species. It happens when an animal is tired. It can be used as a threat display in some species.
我们只晓得,简直每种植物都会打哈欠。植物疲劳的时分会打哈欠。一些植物用哈欠作爲要挟。
Yawning can occur during times of social conflict and stress, something researchers call a displacement behavior.
哈欠还可以在遇到社会抵触和压力时发生。一些研讨人员称之爲替代行爲。
And that wide-open mouth can be contagious, especially in social species such as humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, macaques and wolves.
而且,打哈欠会传染,特别是在社会型植物中,比方人类、黑猩猩、倭黑猩猩、猕猴和狼。
Watching someone yawn - heck, even reading about yawns - can lead you to yawn yourself. Why?
看到他人打哈欠,甚至读到打哈欠的情节,本人也会打哈欠,这又是为何呢?
Research on humans tell us that people who are more empathetic tend to be more susceptible to contagious yawning. When you see someone else yawn, the networks in your brain responsible for empathy and social skills are activated.
关于人类的研讨通知我们,越有同理心的人越容易被哈欠传染。当你看到他人打哈欠,你的大脑中担任共鸣和社交技艺的神经网络就会被激活。
Is yawning contagious for dogs, too? In 2011, UK biologists tested for contagious yawning between people and man’s best friend.
打哈欠可以传染给狗吗?2011年,英国生物学家对人和狗之间打哈欠能否传染停止了实验。
Although five of the 19 dogs they studied did yawn in response to an unfamiliar person’s yawn, the researchers couldn’t prove the yawns were contagious.
虽然在参与测试的19只狗中,有5只确实遭到生疏人打哈欠的行爲感染也打了哈欠,但研讨人员仍不能证明这种传染性。
In 2013, cognitive and behavioral scientists at the University of Tokyo once again tested contagious yawning in canines while controlling for stress.
2013年,东京大学认知和行爲学家在控制压力的条件下再次测试了狗能否会被打哈欠传染。
This time the researchers found that dogs were more likely to yawn in response to a familiar person. They concluded that dogs can “catch” a yawn from humans and that yawning is a social rather than a stress-based behavior.
这次研讨人员发现,狗在见到熟习的人打哈欠时更容易被传染。他们得出结论称,狗会被人打哈欠的行爲传染,打哈欠是一种社会行爲,而非基于压力的行爲。
In 2014, University of Nebraska psychologists looked at contagious yawning in shelter dogs.
2014年,内布拉斯加大学的心思学家察看了收留所的狗打哈欠传染的景象。
They found that some dogs that yawned when exposed to human yawning had elevated cortisol levels - a proxy for stress.
他们发现,被人打哈欠传染的狗皮质醇程度降低,皮质醇是一种压力荷尔蒙。
Levels of the cortisol stress hormone did not rise in dogs that didn’t yawn in response to a human yawn.
看到人打哈欠时毫无反响的狗狗体内皮质醇压力荷尔蒙程度并未降低。
This finding suggests some dogs find human yawning stressful and others do not. More research is needed to evaluate this aspect of the human-dog relationship.
这一发现标明,一些狗狗以为人打哈欠给它们带来了压力,而另一些则没有。我们还需求更多的研讨来评价人与狗之间在打哈欠时发生的关联。
So the jury’s still out on the true why of yawning. But when it comes to inter-species yawning, you can collect your own anecdotal data.
所以,关于打哈欠的缘由目前还没有定论。但是若论到打哈欠相互传染,你可以从本人的生活中搜集一些证据。
Try an experiment at home: Yawn and see if your pet yawns back.
可以在家里做个小实验:打个哈欠,看看你的宠物会不会也回给你一个哈欠。
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